The recently developed American Black Ale (ABA) is the product of American craft brewers’ love affair with hops, and their constant desire to innovate and push the envelope. Believed to have originated at the Vermont Pub and Brewery in 1994, the style has surged in popularity since 2007, especially in the Pacific Northwest region, prompting many to refer to it as a Cascadian Dark Ale. The ABA, often called a Black IPA, is similar to its predecessor, the India Pale Ale, but has had its malt bill modified to include a small percentage of highly kilned or roasted malts, giving the beer a dark brown or black appearance. The aromas are typically grassy, spicy, floral, citrussy and/or piny, thanks to aggressive quantities of hops being added at the end of the boil and as dry-hops. Despite its dark color, the malt flavors are typically in the background as they are dominated by ample bitterness and hop flavor. Flavors are resinous and citrussy, and in some versions the dark malts can lend light caramel, chocolate, coffee, or ashy flavors to the beer. The alcohol content for ABAs is typically in the 5.5%-8% by volume range.